Nähern die Aufbewahrungsorte

24, 4. ent-glider stт. daz wir den hern Wenzlaw als einen verstimer, entglider und веіпs burgerrechten auяв der stat tete Nг. entlibunge, remedium нет. Jm Мйrtztal, das gemacht ift zu zeiten hern hannfen Rötel pharrer dafelbs Anno.c ut Supra. Nг. схсгу. Рp. Вt fol. N. s. Nr. СХС[[—СХСIII. V. L. Das Gebet des Herrn und die Einsetzungsworte. Laßt uns beten: Vater unser. Op Nг.' B. Das Wunder auf der Flucht. Auf jener Flucht. (Rückert.) Op. Ins windige Wetter kann nach dem ganzen Wasserbecken spazieren, sich jener KГјste nГ¤hern, von der der Wind ins Wasser der Insekten forttrГ¤gt. Am Tag. Dazu muss man in der Entfernung m auf das nahe Licht Гјbergehen und, sich dem Auto-FГјhrer auf 75 nГ¤hern 50 m, fortsetzend, sich nach einem.

Die Welt betritt die Zeit der Befriedigung, der SГ¤ttigung, damit sich dann zu pressyschtschennosti wieder allmГ¤hlich zu nГ¤hern. In der modernen Literatur das. Unterbrechung zu nГ¤hern, das Pedal der Kupplung auszudrГјcken, damit ostanow des Motors bei der vollen Unterbrechung des Autos nicht geschehen ist. Nach dobno spermatozitu I der Ordnung, geht sie das nГ¤chste Stadium mejosa damit Sie nehmen in Mal dem MaГџ zu und nГ¤hern sich, um sich im Zentrum​.

Among the causes of temporary disability respiratory diseases occupy the first place, followed by injuries and accidents and the third largest cardio-vascular system, resulting, as already mentioned above, high neuro-emotional stress, physical inactivity, hypokinesia combined with noise, vibration, infrasound, toxic substances.

Thus, all the above listed shows that the problem of occupational health and the health of drivers of urban transport is extremely important.

Especially in the current published data of domestic and foreign authors do not fully disclose the problem.

Every therapeutic methods of treatment is linked to the pathogenic chain of trigeminal neuralgia either by increasing the excitation threshold of the sensitive neurons of the brain stem and cortex of the cerebrum with anticonvulsant drugs or the suppression of the trigger zone with botulinum toxin.

The basic link where the formation of pathologic nidus demyelination neurovascular 22 Programm Abstracts conflict takes place is not under the influence of therapeutic method.

For the accomplishment of therapeutic method, apart from primary patients with TN we need patients without conflict during microvascular decompression MD , with recurrent of the pain after successful microvascular decompression, with recurrent the pain after destructive surgery.

We presented the results of conservative therapy of 78 patients with classical trigeminal neuralgia.

To the method presented in Patency No there were also added application of the trigger zones, anesthetics with the aim of excluding them.

The results of the investigations showed mainly the therapeutic effect on all the 3 components of the pathogenesis of classical TN.

Reducing the doze of dibenzoazpine decreases the chances of having side effect. This fact, as many authors think, is very important not only for a particular patient but for people in general.

Toxicology had shown a relative increment in the concentration of carbamazepin on the water surface of North America and Europe Cunnigham V.

L at al, Alongside with epileptic patients, patients with TN taking carbamazepin for a long time will have the greater part of the drug in their exosystem.

Due to this, there was doubling of patients who went into complete remission. Weak correlation dependence of the results of treatment was established based on the age of the patient.

The older the patient, the poorer the results of conservative treatment. If it is not possible to achieve full remission of the disease within the period of months, the patient undergoes spiral computed angiography.

In confirming neurovascular conflict, we recommend microvascular decompression of Trigeminal Nerve. Destructive intervention should be related to the manipulation that is allowed when organ-conserving treatment is not effective and mainly in the aged persons.

The choice of specific treatment, whether medical or surgical, should be tailored to the needs of the individual patient. Bekmagambetova K.

Toguzbayeva K. Tulebayev E. Nadueva L. Niyazbekova L. Seiduanova A. Sailybekova D. Zhunistaev A. Asfendiyarov, Almaty, Kazakhstan An important condition for effective prevention of infectious diseases is the proper sanitary and epidemiological supervision, during which some emphasis should be shifted to 23 monitoring the environmental safety.

This issue has recently received much attention. Meanwhile, in tuberculosis - infection with predominantly chronic course, epidemiological surveillance system in ecologically poor regions, has not yet been developed.

In principle, it should include two subsystems: information support and epidemiological diagnosis. Their complex interaction on modern scientific basis, should provide an epidemiological study of prognosis and of adequate preventive measures.

Information provision should be achieved in multi-dimensional study of the determinants of the epidemic process, which, to our knowledge are, and environmental factors.

The basis for the implementation of the prospective evaluation of the situation of tuberculosis, depending on the levels of harmful anthropogenic factors, and, therefore, to develop an integrated system of tuberculosis control activities among people living near the test missile and nuclear sites, could be that we have developed mathematical models.

Further, all information must come to the Regional Analytical Center, which functions as a separate subsystem, perhaps on the basis of sanitary-epidemiological institutions.

About the environmental situation in the region, in particular our method, the levels of toxicants pollution of drinking water and basic foodstuffs, the information must come from the sanitary-epidemiological institutions, the regional department for the environment.

After analyzing the information received material about the prospective evaluation of the epidemiological situation of tuberculosis should be referred for decisionmaking in the district and regional governorates of the region, district and regional health department, district and regional tuberculosis dispensary, district and regional sanitary and epidemiological control and territorial management on the ecology.

Undoubtedly, the purpose of providing feedback on the system analysis of the situation of tuberculosis under the influence of harmful anthropogenic factors should be carried out at higher levels - at the National Center for Tuberculosis Problems of Kazakhstan and the Ministry of Health.

Correcting the negative impact of these factors may be partially at regional levels. However, the radical improvement of the sociosanitary and environmental conditions of the population living in regions of nuclearmissile test ranges, is only possible with the support at the state level 24 Programm Abstracts T.

Considerable negative environmental and social changes occurring within the recent years cause the need in supplementing therapeutic standards with modern naturopathic technologies.

The purpose of this work is to study the effectiveness of antihomotoxic ATG therapy as a background treatment of patients with sluggish chronic diseases.

Methods of research are questionnaires for the life quality assessment, analog scale of pain, scale of well-being, activity, mood and vegetative status assessment, clinical neurologic examination, electroencephalography, rheoencephalography, electropuncture diagnostics under Dr.

There were mostly observed mothers aged from 24 to 38 years with children aged up to 14 years with nervous system illnesses and allergic diseases.

All patients under supervision had some or other syndromes of connective-tissue deficiency of moderate expressivity.

In addition to conventional pharmacotherapy applied in acute periods of diseases a combined health-improving treatment was used for the said patients.

It consisted of antihistamine medications prescribed to patients from the first days of disease through all over the period of moderating exacerbation and in the early period of rehabilitation.

The following AGT therapy schemes were recognized as the best ones in clinical effectiveness.

For patients who were frequently taken ill with acute respiratory diseases and for cases of chronic illnesses the following different combinations of medications were used: Engistol, Galium-heel, Bronchalis-heel, Mucosa compositum, Echinacea compositum, Traumeel C, Euphorbium compositum.

After therapy courses within a year or a year and a half the clinical effectiveness was After therapy courses within one or two years the clinical effectiveness is In case of faults in posture, arthropathy and vertebral diseases Traumeel S, Cell T, Discus compositum, Placenta compositum were used.

The said antihomotoxic therapy was applied under individually elaborated schemes based on results of clinical and biophysical diagnostics.

Such treatment schemes were corrected monthly based on the repeated standard and biophysical diagnostics. Thus, the antihomotoxic therapy is an advanced technology with regeneration and tissue-protective properties.

It may improve considerably the life quality for frequently sick patients and patients with chronic sluggish diseases.

Having different degrees of suddenness and dimension, they may be the source of stress related to external reasons as well as to internal ones because of insufficient psychological preparedness, low affective tolerance.

People, who have experienced such situations, as a rule, are identified as highly prone to psychogenic disorders which express themselves as post-traumatic stress disorders abbreviated PTSD.

Psychic disadaptation condition can be acute during the period of intense influence of stress factors or delayed after stressors have lost their effect.

That is why nowadays it is relevant to study the factors which counteract damaging effect of stress and promote individual resistance to stress.

It should be noted that the disorders manifest themselves as low mood, anxiety, aggressiveness, or performance efficiency degradation, alcohol abuse, interfamilial and interpersonal conflicts, that is more at the psychological or behavioral level than at the clinical one.

Along with the traditional checkup methods such as structured interview, anonymous questionnaire survey, post-traumatic stress scale, diagnostics of neurotization level by L.

One can conclude on the basis of the research that one of the principal clinical and psychological manifestations of post-traumatic clinical disorder is psychosocial adaptation derangement as a result of imbalance at all levels of the integral system of the organism.

Analysis of the research results shows: 1. The clinical picture of PTSD can become apparent either at the preclinical level if individual barrier of psychic adaptation stays undamaged or manifest itself in specific nosological entities neuroses, personality disorders, drug habituation, alcohol dependence, autogenous and exogenic-organic psychotic states.

The clinical picture defines the clinical peculiarity, course and outcome of the disorders. PTSD problem is still contradictive and unsolved as there is a vast range of different approaches and views in clinical psychiatry.

Accordingly, preventive and rehabilitation measures should be taken towards the people who have gone through stress long before disease process starts.

The success of these measures will be determined to a great extent with the quality of occupational selection and training, limitation of time spent in extreme conditions and timely identification of persons predisposed to mental disorders.

Implementation of new computer-based technologies in medicine and psychology allows to diagnose diseases and conditions at the symptomless stage when there are only some control and regulatory dysfunctions which cannot be detected with conventional clinical methods.

Chromotherapy colourcorrection is a breakthrough method of the modern medicine. This is a natural way of prevention of psychosomatic diseases 27 with narrowband monochromic light radiation.

Resonance effect of light spectrum monochromic radiations on an eye promotes impaired functions recovery in brain and other organs and systems.

The work done within the limits of this research allows to make the following conclusions: 1. All this is vital in working with PTSD.

Therapy course is shown on computer screen and looks like pulsatory colour range. This correction method can be combined with any treatment modes, although it is efficient without them.

The research results are of value as they can be used for elaborating the most expedient set of adaptation measures aimed at psychological help and support for patients being at the stage of adaptation to harmonious combination of different life activity spheres.

Butov V. Vasenova S. Das unterstreicht nur noch die soziale Bedeutung des Problems. Danach wurden die spitzen Kondylome durch die Elektrokoagulationsbehandlung entfernt.

Die Frauen bekamen das Medikament 10 Tage lang vaginal bis zu Einheiten zweimal pro Tag, sowie parallel 20 tage lang rektal bis zu Einheiten jeden zweiten Tag.

Cherenkov V. Ivanchenko S. However, within the limits of this method sampling is done by way of bringing a trocar through the pathologic process, creating a vacuum, soaking and fragmentary manifold excision of tissues which contradicts ablastics and antiblastics principles.

In vacuum the biological material pollutes the expensive device. Research Methods. At the same time, cylindric branch with a sharpened edge goes down into tissues, cuts off a tumor and coagulates the wound surface with the help of device for diathermic treatment connected through a cauter.

After retraction of the cryogenic stylet together with the focal mass into the cylindric branch, the business end of the cauter is lowered to the level of the branch sharpened edge and tissue column end is cut off in a coagulation mode with application of diathermy.

The device is pulled out of the wound. The excised piece of tissue is sent for urgent morphologic examination.

Hemostasis control. In case of a benign neoplasm or proliferative changes the manipulation is concluded with stitching.

In case of cancer the abscission edge cleanness and stage of the disease are evaluated. Treatment plan after the operation is elaborated according to tumor stage and histotype.

The method was tested on 8 postoperative specimen of mammary gland after radical mastectomy. Then the method was applied to 25 patients with nodal mastopathy and fibroadenoma FAM , to 7 patients with microcalcification cluster syndrome and to 5 with nonpalpable tumors of unclear genesis TUG.

In all the case studies the boundaries of frozen tissue were clearly detected with ultrasound. The method can be applied on an outpatient basis if there is a cryogenic device, an ultrasound control device and a device for diathermic treatment.

Chubirko N. Pichuzhkina L. Personnel training of improvement of doctors conducted in the following fields: epidemiology, bacteriology, hygiene, social hygiene and epidemiological service organization.

The main requirement for epidemiological service professionals is the ability to professionally, based on a set of theoretical knowledge and practical skills to implement the organizational, supervisory and advisory activities on the sanitary-epidemiological welfare of population.

Competence approach to training is focused on the increasing emphasis the acquisition of skills.

The basic component of professional medical competence is a set of general professional and special medical knowledge.

This component determines the motivation to master the information and determines the aspiration to use opportunities of the different sources or information in the field of medical advances and practices in general.

So, the competence approach determines the need for greater emphasis to acquire skills and it is intended to provide the transition from knowledge of subject learning paradigm to paradigm of achievements.

Control the quality of education at the department is carried out by the preliminary and final knowledge testing, delivery of the qualifying exam, preparation of essays on a 31 particular subject on the most urgent problems of hygiene and epidemiology.

Learning process at the department is not limited to the institution. The practical orientation of training specialists is carried out by conducting classes at sites of supervision.

Training schedule includes the topics of new directions in activities of the epidemiological service, which are related to its reforming and improving of the health care system, and questions of legal support.

The main scientific direction of the department is provision hygienic safety of the population of the region.

Chuprikov B. Popovskiy N. Vasilevskaya E. Kushnirskaya A. Burago N. Heute nimmt die Animalotherapie eine Zwischenstellung zwischen Medizin, Psychocorrection und Zoobiologie ein.

Eine harmonische und effektive Zusammenwirkung zwischen dem Kind und dem Tier soll einerseits streng individuell erfolgen, aber andererseits auch den allgemeinen Regeln unterliegen.

Der Leitlinienentwurf zur Verwirklichung der Hippotherapie bekam mittlerweile die Genehmigung von ansehnlichen Wissenschaftlern des Landes.

Chuprikov V. Mishiev V. Wie es aus vielen Versuchsergebnissen bekannt ist, durchdringen solche Neuropeptide ungehindert die Blut-Gehirn-Schranke und haben in geringen Konzentrationen eine vielseitige Wirkung auf das Gehirn.

Auf diese Weise beseitigen diese Peptide eine allgemeine Desintegration in der Wechselwirkung von komplexen biochemischen Mechanismen im Gehirn.

Drei-viertel davon sind die Jungen. Die weiteren bemerkenswerten Ergebnisse wurden schon nach den ersten Kursen festgestellt.

Auf dieser Weise kann der Neuropeptide Cerebrocurin bei der Behandlung von verschiedenartigen psychologischen Pathologien bei den Kindern als ein wichtiger Bestandteil einer komplexen Therapie benutzt werden.

Denisova A. Vasilyeva L. Gerasimova E. The main group contained patients, identified at a risk group, who were taking medicines for the prevention of intrauterine growth retardation according to our especially developed method.

The comparison group included pregnant women, identified at risk, who refused the suggested method. The women of the main and comparison groups were comparable by all rates with minor differences.

According to the method the main group was prescribed natural micronized progesterone mg 0. At weeks a preventive treatment in day hospital was prescribed with additional inclusion of deproteinized gemoderivat made of calf blood with low molecular weight peptides and nucleic acids derivatives and nadroparin calcium 0.

In the comparison group vitamin therapy and iodine medicines were recommended at first attednance.

The pregnant women refused proposed preventive treatment of FGR and placental insufficiency. Blood flow disorders and CTG changes were not found.

The pregnancy of the main group women completed with spontaneous birth in The birth weight of a child of the main group women exceeded 3.

Djumalieva T. Kim G. Djumalieva A. Azimova J. Botbaeva K. But not enough attention is paid to regional aspects of the epidemic.

These courses give for attendants an opportunity to share experiences in combating HIV in Central Asia, as well as to discuss and communicate among themselves and with experts in this field from different countries, promote international collaboration and cooperation in this field.

With the purpose of further communication and sharing ideas a special internet-forum was developed for the graduates of this programme.

The programme represents a combination of distance and face-to-face learning. During the 2-day introductory workshop, participants get thoroughly acquainted with Internet 36 Programm Abstracts resources and acquire skills of the distance learning.

The distance learning phase consists of 4 modules, including case studies, lectures, written assignments, questions for self-control.

It works through chat rooms, forums, communicating by e-mail, the use of electronic library, glossaries, and lists of links.

To this date, three distance courses for non-medical experts and one course for medical specialists in Kyrgyzstan, and three regional distance courses with the participation of Kyrgyz, Kazakh and Tajik specialists are conducted.

Dmitruk M. Kartalov G. Martova S. More than one-third of all doctor visits for dermatology conditions are for chronic inflammatory skin conditions, including psoriasis and atopic dermatitis.

A large number of the clinical variations of these conditions are limited forms that do not require long-term systemic therapy, and their treatment is limited to the use of topical products.

Underlying the pathogenesis of these dermatoses are changes in keratinization processes in the epidermis, which invariably lead to an increase in water loss and skin permeability, which promotes local inflammation.

One of the most original products affecting keratinization processes and restoring the epidermal barrier is Kartalin therapeutic ointment.

Methods and materials. In the first stage of the research we studied and treated psoriasis patients in the skin disease clinic of Siberian Medical University.

Initial PASI scores were determined for all patients under our care. Patients with mild and moderate psoriasis PASI up to 50 were selected for the study groups.

After 4 weeks the PASI was recalculated and the efficacy of the therapy was assessed according to the results. The PASI of the study groups was calculated at the end of treatment to reflect the trend in the regression of the clinical manifestations of psoriasis.

In group A it was The clinical manifestations of psoriasis exhibited a negative response during treatment in both study groups.

The second part of the study involved examination and treatment of 46 patients with atopic dermatitis.

Criteria for inclusion in the group were: adolescence and adulthood; lichenoid clinical forms and squamous clinical forms with lichenification.

All patients were representative in age, sex, and duration of the condition. All the patients were divided into two groups.

At the end of the treatment it was 14 for group C and 18 for group D. On this basis one may make the following conclusions: 1.

Kartalin is an effective product for topical treatment of psoriasis reduction in PASI Donchenko V. This disease does not present immediate danger to life.

Most often slow development and progressing of hypotheriosis are noted. Diminished thyroid function provokes occurrence and progressing of atherosclerosis, significantly deteriorates quality of life, decreases antitumor resistance.

Less frequently the disease manifests by thyrotoxicosis with involvement of heart, nervous system. In traditional endocrinology there are no methods of AT treatment.

Patients are observed and at diminishing of thyroid function replacement therapy is carried out using synthetic analogs of thyroid hormones.

The patients are convinced that the diseases is incurable, as a genetic immune defect lies at its root. Indeed, the role of genetic predisposition to autoimmune reactions is undeniable.

But those features of immune response might practically not manifest themselves. Distinctive features of the 38 Programm Abstracts disease occur with chronic centers of infection, acute or chronic stress.

In the 2-year period AT patients underwent treatment at the Clinic for Ecological Medicine. At the moment of treatment beginning, most patients had latent or apparent hypotheriosis table 1.

Table 1. Functional condition of thyroid of examined patients Thyroid function Number of observations Abs. Hyperthermic intestinal dialysis with saline solutions and phytotea allowed to get out of system toxins and pathometabolism products, to restore acid-base balance and liver function, to remove excessive hormones at thyrotoxicosis.

Detoxification effect, restoration of functional activity of kidney and thyroid significantly enhanced visceral massage method application.

Solutions of sodium thiosulphate were prescribed for desensibilization and suppression of immune autoaggression. Treatment efficiency improved when using homeopathic composite preparations by inhalation or subcutaneous injections.

In most cases the complex of treatment included isopathic sanum-therapy and treatment with fetal organopreparations. Restoration of normal indices of TTH and antithyrotropic antibodies took much longer.

In all cases of thyrotoxicosis within one month it was possible to give up thyreostatic therapy.

However persistent and 39 lasting remission was achieved using the whole complex of methods, in treatment of not less than 3 months.

Thus, autoimmune thyroiditis should not be considered as an incurable disease. Application of endoecological rehabilitation complex allows to achieve a positive subjective and objective effect in all observations.

In absolute majority of observations a persistent and lasting effect can be achieved. Dschumascheva G. Kapanova K.

Toguzbaeva G. Eine deutliche Verbesserung der normativ-rechtlichen Basis, des Systems die Finanzierung und die Festigung von materiell-technischen Basis der medizinischen Bildungsorganisationen.

Es vervollkommnet sich die Verwaltung von der medizinischen Bildung. Das gesamte Bildungssystem und insbesondere die medizinische Bildung hat starke sowjetische russische Wurzeln und ist rechtlich stolz auf ihre reiche Vergangenheit, wann es im XX.

Jahrhundert als einer beste in der Welt anerkannt war. Heute stehen vor ihr die neuen Aufgaben und das wird schon reformiert.

Elisseev Z. Bulatova V. Galahov T. Kulishova L. Die Periodendauer der Bronchitis rekonvaleszenz bildete Monate. Der ganze Zeitabschnitt der Behandlung im Kurort wurde auf drei bedingte Perioden abgegrenzt: die erste - die Adaptation, die zweite - die aktive Kurbehandlung, die dritte die Vorbereitung zum Auszung.

Den Kindern mit der Bronchitis im Rekonvaleszenzstadium im Kurort Belokuricha wurde die komplexe Kurbehandlung im Laufe von 21 Tagen ernannt, in der das schonendtrainierende motorische Regime, Klimatotherapie Balneothermotherapie, die manuelle Einwirkung, die Physiotherapeutischen Prozeduren und die Heilgymnastik eintraten.

In den Komplex der Heilgymnastik traten die Morgen-hygienische Gymnastik, die Terrainkur und die Atmungsgymnastik ein.

Den Kindern mit der kurzen Bronchitis rekonvaleszenzperiode bis zu 3 Monaten wurde der Komplex der therapeutische Manipulationen mit der Benutzung der Sauna, der Manualtherapie und der Badeprozeduren vorgeschrieben.

Die Erfahrung unserer professionellen Arbeit in dem Zirkus, und eine Reihe von literarischen Quellen weisen auf das Vorhandensein dieser Krankheit in dem Zirkus, insbesondere bei den Akrobaten und Turnern, aufgrund der Traumatisierung und Stress bei ihrer Arbeit.

Nach den Aussagen einiger Autoren, kann keine der bekannten Methoden der Rehabilitation bis heute eine stabile therapeutische Wirkung erreichen.

Organisation der Studie. Gelfond V. Greff E. Starkova V. Especially toxic among the heavy metals are lead, ranked as the first class of extremely hazardous substances.

It is proved that lead has reproductive toxicity; this element easily crosses the placental barrier and accumulates fetus tissues Nikitin A.

Long-term exposure during pregnancy with harmful chemical substances, even subliminal values, resulting in damage to the placenta is formed in uterus des-adaptive processes, which are then implemented in pathological states are directly related to disturbances in mineral metabolism.

The purpose of the work: using multi-element analysis of blood serum to examine the state of the exchange of macro-and microelements in the organism with chronic intoxication salts lead to pregnancy.

Methods: analytical investigations were carried out by methods of atom-issue spectrometry. Biomarker: - blood serum. Results and discussion: The obtained results testify that micronutrient balance of organism changes during physiological pregnancy.

These changes are related to development and active functioning of feto-placental complex. The concentration of Pb in the serum of pregnant animals did not change as compared to a control group.

Considerably more serious disbalance of element exchange is found in the group of animals with leaden intoxication out of pregnancy group A and at condition of pregnancy by complicated leaden intoxication group B.

Group A. Group B. German I. Zykova A. Modestova N. Research material and methods. Randomly chosen representatives of the working population of Moscow were checked for Helicobacter pylori H.

The infection was diagnosed by the presence of specific anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG antibodies in the blood serum by way of enzyme-linked immunoelectrodiffusion essay ELISA.

Diagnostic tests of two types were used: H. CagA antigen was established in persons infected with H. Each of the research participants was interviewed about their working activity, socioeconomic status, health status, living conditions at the moment of interview and in childhood, bad habits and hygienic habits, contacts with animals.

It was detected with equal frequency in males and females. Working citizens under the age of 30 were diagnosed with H.

The older the participants were the more of them were diagnosed with H. The share of infected participants among those who at work had been in contact with sewage waters was higher than among those who had not.

Living in childhood in a village house without a sewerage system affected the frequency of H. All the participants who lived in a communal appartment or hall of residence turned out to be infected.

Drinking tap water without boiling it did not affect contamination rate. Contact with pets did not lead to increase in contamination rate.

Income per family member did not influence H. The cases of probable family contamination were often registered. The infection is often to be detected in young people.

Virulent strains of the bacterium predominate among the infected citizens of the megapolis. Gisatullin S. Campbell, ; W.

Tuteljan, ]. Methods: Clinical observation of patients, applying traditional Chinese treatment methods, Korean Sutczi-Chimsur therapy, methods of functional diagnostics and laboratory methods while conducting diagnostics.

Results: an approach to diagnostics and treatment of diseases using Sutczi-Chimsur therapy is offered. Sutczi-Chimsur is a Korean hand acupuncture method.

Up to the present day scholars argue which method had been developed earlier: corporal Chinese acupuncture or Korean Sutczi-Chimsur acupuncture.

Our hands and our health are strongly connected. A palm is a holographic image of the whole organism that reflects the state of the internal organs and the presence of disease.

No matter what the disease is, it always begins with affecting the energy channels. The hands act as a health barometer. They receive and transmit distress signals from the internal organs.

Different parts of hand reflect the state of different organs. Hand diagnostics allows to estimate and forecast health condition, including the spheres that are hardly accessible for modern medical devices early stages of CVD, kidney and liver disease etc.

Hand diagnostics enables the specialist to receive precise information on diseases including incurable ones in order to perform necessary prophylaxis and treatment.

What makes Sutczi-Chimsur special? These channels are identical to the body channels. Sutczi-Chimsur is effective when the specialist faces the necessity to insert needles into restricted and dangerous points 48 Programm Abstracts of corporal acupuncture.

Sutczi-Chimsur provides soft and yet effective treatment. Sutczi-Chimsur therapy is an alternative for inserting needles into the points of perineal space, lower part of the abdomen, points of 1st and 2nd chakras etc.

Our observations prove Sutczi-Chimsur therapy to be most effective when combined with corporal acupuncture, ayurvedic treatment, phytotherapy and homoeopathy.

We believe that combination of Sutczi-Chimsur therapy and the corporal acupuncture contributes to the effectiveness of the treatment and provides more stable and durable results at a faster pace.

This combination is especially effective when treating bronchial asthma, endocrine pathologies, migraines as well as liver, pancreas, stomach, intestinal tract diseases and gynecologic and urologic conditions.

Sutczi-Chimsur therapy is more complex and more effective than Su Jok therapy, especially when treating chronic diseases.

Based on our studies of the hand channels intersecting the hand lines and their reflection of pathologies of inner organs we are able to offer treatment methods.

Conclusion: Sutczi-Chimsur therapy deserves thorough studying and is recommended for clinical application. Gorchakov S.

Anohin O. Gorchakova Yu. Roentgen fluorescent analysis with synchrotron irradiation Institute of Nuclear Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences and kidney and lymphatic node as a bio substrates have been used in study.

Glycerol model with rats has been used for simulation of acute renal insufficiency Borisova I. It has been revealed that concentration of macro- and microelements in kidney differs from its concentration in lymphatic node.

Concentrations of zinc 1,3 times , copper 1,5 times , iron and calcium 1,6 times and selenium 1,6 times are more in regional lymphatic node, than in kidney at the physiologic conditions.

At the 3-rd day of the acute renal insufficiency concentration of chlorine 1,8 times , iron 1,4 times , copper 1,4 times , zinc and selenium 1,2 times are increased in tissue of kidney.

Simultaneously concentration of manganese 1,3 times is decreased. At the 7-th day of acute renal insufficiency concentrations of the most macro- and microelements return to control values except chlorine, lead and iron, concentrations of them are increased 1,2, 1.

At the th day of acute renal insufficiency concentrations of studied macro- and microelements are in the limits of control. At the end of study changes in concentrations of certain macro- and microelements in tissue of kidney are observed.

Statistically significant decrease of concentration of calcium 1,3 times and increase of concentration of iron 1,9 times , copper 1,3 times , selenium 1,4 times , lead 2 times are observed.

A tendency to increase concentration of zinc and potassium takes place. Concentration of chlorine is in the limits of control. At the 3-rd day of the acute renal insufficiency concentration of potassium 1,7 times , iron 1,5 times , zinc and chlorine 1,3 times are increased in regional lymphatic node.

Simultaneously concentrations of copper 1,5 times and selenium 1,6 times are decreased. At the 7-th day increased concentrations of chlorine 1,2 times , potassium 1,9 , iron 1,5 times , zinc 1,4 times , lead 1,6 times and decreased concentrations of copper 1,5 times and selenium 2,2 times are statistically significant.

Concentrations of calcium and manganese are in the limits of control. At the th day of acute renal insufficiency concentrations of studied manganese, calcium, iron, zinc and lead are changed in the limits of control.

At the end of study 30 days changes in concentrations of certain macro- and microelements in tissue of lymphatic node are observed.

Statistically significant decrease of concentration of calcium 1,5 times , copper 1,8 times , zinc 1,3 times , selenium 2,5 times and increase of concentration of potassium 1,4 times , lead 1,6 times are observed.

Concentration of chlorine and manganese are in the limits of control. Exchange of important macro- and microelements is intensified at the renal insufficiency and they accumulate in the tissues of kidney and lymphatic node.

Functional synergism takes place in kidney and lymphatic node during the exchange of microelements. It prevents losses of macro- and microelements at the renal insufficiency.

But compensatory adaptive processes are sufficiently expended and accompanied with decreased concentrations of copper and selenium in lymphatic node.

More precise definition of microelement composition of kidney and regional lymphatic node is very important for understanding pathogenesis of acute renal insufficiency and gives new possibilities for correction disease based on bioelement exchange.

Gorchakov A. Methods of experiment. Research was studied on 60 white rats of a Wistar. Animals have divided into 3 groups: the first group of animals was control; by an animal of the second group it has been generated an implantation bed without introduction of the titanium-nickel alloy; animals of the third group were exposed to implantation of the titanium-nickel alloy in area of an alveolar process of the lower jaw.

Cells of lymphoid tissue investigated with the help of an ocular graticule. Quantity of cells calculated an area of square microns in various structurally functional zones of a lymph node germinal center, paracortex, medullary cords and lymphatic medullar sinus.

At calculation were considered lymphocytes, immunoblasts, macrophages, reticular cells, mature plasmocytes, eosinophils.

Statistical processing has been spent with application of software packages SPSS 9. The implantation of titanium nickelide changes cellular composition in a lymph node.

There is statistically a decrease of the maintenance small lymphocytes, blast cells, macrophages and eosinophils in a lymphoid nodule with the germinal center.

There is a decrease the maintenance of averages lymphocytes, immunoblasts reticular cells, and an increase the number of macrophages and eosinophils in paracortex.

The cell population is become normal to an end of experiment in the paracortex. There is in the experiment beginning an increase the maintenance of mature plasmocytes in medullar cords of a lymph node.

The quantity of macrophages, reticular cells, mature plasmocytes and eosinophils increased to an end of experiment in medullar cords of a lymph node.

There is a decrease the maintenance of small and average lymphocytes and an increase the maintenance of eosinophils and macrophages by 7 days of supervision in medullar sinus of a lymph node.

The number small lymphocytes, immunoblasts and eosinophils increased to end of experiment in in medullar sinus of a lymph node.

For days of implantation was observed the authentic increase in the maintenance macrophages in germinal center, paracortex and medullary sinus of a lymph node.

These changes are the activation of phagocytal reaction. It is often observed at protective reactions of an organism Jurina N.

For all zones of a lymph node number decrease lymphocytes is characteristic. Decrease of lymphocytes is connected with 51 delay of migration of cages in a lymph node, especially in paracortex.

Certainly, the local proliferation cells are of great importance Hussar J. The basic way of receipt lymphocytes in a lymph node are postcapillary venules with high endothelium.

Circulation of lymphocytes is regulated of interdigital cells and macrophages in a lymph node Fossum S. There is an increase in number of averages lymphocytes in the conditions of implantation.

The average lymphocyte is the transitive form between immunoblast and small lymphocyte Fossum S.

The increase the maintenance of averages lymphocytes is a development basis of proliferation of lymphoid tissue Vasilev N. In the germinal center marked maintenance increase immunoblasts.

At the same time their maintenance in paracortex and medullary cords authentically decreased. Apparently, there is an oppression of differentiation of cells.

These results will be coordinated with data of other scientists Borodin Y. Number of plasmocytes is connected with intensity of humoral immunity in a lymph node.

We have noted positive changes in population of cells in a lymph node for 60 and days of experiment. The quantity of lymphoid cells does not differ from control in structural and functional zones of a lymph node.

Morphokinetics of cellular populations of structurally functional zones takes place to be differently directed.

The number of cells depends on functional specialization of a zone in a lymph node and from period of implantation.

Gref E. Astashov N. Burchak P. Larionov S. Annually humanity synthesizes tens of thousands of new chemical compounds, which are in contact with a man and interfere in its metabolism.

Soil contaminated with chemicals, products of radioactive decay, the water in the aquifers contains dissolved heavy metals, often in concentrations exceeding the maximum allowable.

It was heavy metals occupied the second place after the pesticides among the main pollutants of the environment. Their concentrations in the biosphere in times higher than the background level and especially toxic is Pb.

In modern toxicology estimates Pb refers to the first class of extremely dangerous for an organism. Reproductive toxicity of Pb is known for a long time, he easily overcomes gisto-blood barriers and the placenta, accumulates tissues 52 Programm Abstracts of the fetus.

Clinical and experimental studies carried out earlier in our institute, it is shown that many of the chronic diseases associated with health defects that have occurred even in the prenatal period.

In this investigation, a study of the status of the lymphatic system during pregnancy complicated by chronic intoxication Pb acetate and on the background of application of NanoCarbon mineral sorbent NCMS.

In the group of correction, during the pregnancy, administered enterally within 14 days NanoCarbon mineral sorbent. Iliac lymph node in complicated chronic intoxication of pregnancy on the background of NCMS remains fragmented type of structural-functional specialization, it identifies structural signs of activation of the humoral and cell-mediated immune response.

In the reduced thickness of the connective tissue structures, perhaps due to the reduction of edema. Investigation of the structure of the renal lymph nodes in the group of animals revealed reduction of transport through the lymph node the area of the sinuses.

In the renal lymph nodes identified pronounced structural signs of activation of humoral type of the immune response increased area of secondary lymphoid nodules, the number of mature forms of cells of lymphoid and plasma- derived series.

Therefore, the use of sorbent to reduce the toxic load on the organism is extremely important, because many drugs are not recommended or even contraindicated during pregnancy.

This study confirms that the use of sorbent in the complex of methods of drainage interstice, has expressed lymph correction and lymph stimulation effects.

Ibodov T. Abdufatoev R. Rofiev Sh. Latipov B. At the age of 3 days to 1 year were - 9, from 1 to 3 years - 25,3 - 7 years - 22, i7 - 15 years of children Rectal HD observed 53 at 23, rektosigmoidalation - in 27, subtotal - 7, total-and segmental in 3 - 3 children.

Patients, depending on the clinical manifestation of chronic intoxication and disturbances of homeostasis parameters are divided into three levels of endogenous intoxication T.

Abdufatoev, As of 1- st degree. Endogenous intoxication EI were observed - 9, 2-nd degree. Endogenous intoxication - 41 and 3-rd degree, patients.

Manifestation of endogenous intoxication mainly stuck to care for the sick in the hospital to stage.

Degree of endogenous intoxication was based on identifying changes in lung function, cardiovascular system, liver, and homeostasis.

Leading to the diagnosis of HD was the contrast ergography colon in two projections, in a tight filling and emptying, as well as X-ray measurement and manometry.

In the late period two patients had complications as a narrowing of the anastomosis 1 and disease recurrence 1.

In 4 children 3 years there was a decrease proteinosynthetic detoxification and liver function. The average hospital stay for all stages of treatment comprised 53 three bed-days.

The date of radical surgery believe children older than 6 months. All the patients were carried out demucozation start of the sigmoid and rectum to the longitudinal folds of not more than 1 cm from the anal opening.

Expanded sections of sero-muscular sheath on the antero-lateral surface of the excised left depending on the size of the gut relegated to the projection of the internal sphincter.

Further dissection is performed internal and partly external sphincter up to 1 cm from the anus. In order to prevent reduction relegated intestine sero-muscular sutures fixed to the skin of the anus.

All patients to postoperative regional analgesia and endolymphatic antibiotic therapy, interoperation projected 3. In 46 patients with postoperative complications and no deaths were observed.

The average stay of patients was 28 2. Thus, the preoperative preparation of patients with HD without prior colostomy and Soave operation - Lenyushkina in conjunction with a longitudinal wedge-shaped excision of the extended part of sero-muscular sheath and dissection of the internal and partly external sphincter latching relegated ulcer on the skin of the anus are very effective.

Ibodov A. Sharipov B. Improved results of surgical treatment of children with various forms of echinococcosis of the lungs Materials and methods.

EL in various forms. Children aged years were Bilateral lesion in 8 5. According to the location in tissue lung echinococcus more and other central located, less 26 on the periphery.

Depending on the size and scope of the EC in the classification of A. Pulatova were. Among the complicated forms of echinococcosis patients with a breakthrough in the bronchus was 42, in the pleural cavity 4, a breakthrough in the bronchus and the pleural cavity2, suppuration of the residual cavity of the EC-3, re cystic inflammation In the diagnosis of the disease was mainly used radio logic method of investigation In observations for the diagnosis, the timing and extent of surgical intervention was used ultrasound U.

Results and discussion. We used two-stage disclosure of thoracic injuries in 71 patients with large and giant cyst of the lungs.

It consisted of the following: first produced torakotsentez dissection of parietal pleura in the course of the wound for cm Surgeon finger bluntly and gently detaches contiguous portion of the fibrous capsule, given that it was possible to separate the edge of cm and thereby partially exposing cyst.

Then sucked all the way to puncture echinococcus fluid, then dissected and removed fibrous capsule chitinous shell.

Cavity of the fibrous capsule is disinfected and loose plugging. Easy fully released from adhesions. In this case, bronchospasm, we observed in 5 patients, cardiac arrhythmias bradycardia in 4 patients.

In the clinic of pediatric surgery until when centrally located cyst easily applied method, developed by AT Pulatov in - is the creation of artificial interlobar or intersegmental grooves.

In this procedure, operated on 56 out of patients, including 13 with complications. We have been modified to create an artificial interlobar or intersegmental grooves.

In this method, operated on 90 children from patients. The technique is as follows: after the disclosure of the residual cavity formed in the hemisphere, further dissected fibrous capsule with minimal thin layer of lung tissue in the course of vessels and bronchi to the bottom within a functioning lung tissue to 2 3 cm excised edge of the fibrous capsule is imposed several eight-shaped, nonabsorbable hemo and aerostatic seams.

When inflating the lung surface of all the fibrous capsule are closed, as the concave surface on the fibrous capsule is completely eliminated.

Ignatenko M. Pola A. Fayerman Y. Gorky, Donetsk, Ukraine The considerable success in diagnostics and treatment of the widespread diseases of modern world as a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD and coronary heart disease CHD has been achieved at the present time.

However, problem remains extremely urgent. CHD in the industrially developed countries is one of the most common diseases and on the first place among the causes of death.

COPD is disease with the large prevalence and fast developing of disability and high mortality. Methods and Results. All patients received standard therapy with loop diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor antagonist and beta-adrenoblockers in the optimum dosages in the case of absence of contraindications to them.

Above mentioned therapy was constant and did not change at least 8 weeks before a study. There were performed assessing of lung ventilation which includes spirography, bodyplethismography for evaluating of the volumes of lungs and measurement of the lung diffuse capacity by the single breath method.

All these examinations were performed for all patients of both groups on a pulmonary complex Master Lab Pro, Jaeger, Germany.

Examination of lung ventilation revealed decreased DLCO and lungs volumes such as forced expiratory volume during first second, slow vital capacity and alveolar volume as a result of the pneumosclerotic and emphysematous processes of lungs.

It was characterized by reduction in the general and corrected DLCO and by expressed alveolar hypoventilation. At those patients molecular diffusion of carbon monoxide CO through the alveolocapillary membrane in the majority of the cases still remained in normal condition.

This increase was determined with an increase in the chemical reaction of CO with the blood of the capillaries of lungs as a result of an increase in the volume of the pulmonary blood.

In proportion to the increase of interstitial lung oedema and as the result of developing of the pulmonary vessels damage DLCO became equal to the control group.

It was probably due to the gradually developing of thickening of alveolar-capillary membrane and as a result the reduction in the molecular diffusion of CO.

Ignatenko B. Rakitov K. Scherbakov G. Gorky, Donetsk, Ukraine Microvascular angina is quite rare disease, little-studied processes of endothelial dysfunction are in the base of its pathogenesis, they initiate spasm of small coronary 57 arteries brunches.

The treatment options in microvascular angina are still poor developed and insufficiently effective.

The aim of the study is to increase treatment effectiveness of the patients with microvascular angina with using interval normobaric hypoxytherapy IHT.

Materials and methods. We did not include patients with diabetes mellitus, mitral valve prolapse, essential hypertension.

The patients were divided in 2 groups. Control group included 30 practically healthy people of the adequate sex and age. Treatment session of IHT was performed in cycle-fractionate mode: breathing with hypoxic gaseous mixture, then breathing with normal gaseous mixture.

During hypoxic adaptation time of breathing with hypoxic gaseous mixture was increased. Number of such cycles during one procedure was , total time of breathing with reduced content of oxygen in the air was from 20 to 45 min.

Optimal oxygen concentration was used for men Hypoxic cycle duration was corrected taking into account individual sensitivity and susceptibility for hypoxia, oxygen saturation, heart rate and arterial pressure.

Duration of on hypoxic period was min, pause of normal gaseous mixture respiration - 5 min. Such exposures was repeated times during one procedure.

Everyday interval normobaric hypoxytherapy sessions in patients with microvascular angina stimulate exercise tolerance increasing, angina attacks frequency and necessity of additional nitrates intake decreasing.

In information theory, entropy is a measure for insufficiency of information in a physical system and is a function of probability.

Entropy is infinite if probability is zero. According to Hawking, the second law of thermodynamics defines that the states of chaos significantly outnumber the states of order.

He makes the assumption that in the beginning a system has a small number of orderly states. Over time, this system develops according to natural laws and its states change.

At later stages, the states of chaos increase in number. Eventually, its states of chaos increase and so does entropy.

The direction of time in which the computer saves the past is the same direction in which disorder increases.

Living organisms decrease their own entropy at the expense of the increase of the entropy of the environment.

Entropy is a measure of randomness or disorder of the physical system. It is expressed in the number of possible arrangements of the components.

Prigozhin received the Nobel Prize explaining that at a statistical level the chaotic states of living systems lead to an irreversible behavior.

Self-structuring and self-organization are observed. Prigozhin shows how together with the increase of entropy, self-organization originates.

According to the author, living organisms decrease their own entropy due to their orderliness. This orderliness increases with the transition from unicellular to multicellular organisms.

Cells divide in a particular sequence. Living organisms live with their our own energy, and also exchange substances and energy with the environment.

The environment increases its entropy and thus its disorder. Over time, the living organism has more and more difficulties to adapt.

This adaptation depends on the consistency and velocity of 59 life processes. Time measures the duration and sequence of states and events.

The more rapid the life processes, the faster the states of orderliness are observed, i. Yet this leads to difficulties in compensating entropy with that of the environment, which is associated with metabolism and energy.

These organisms such as mammals are able to live up to years. In trees processes are slower, the states of orderliness are obtained more slowly and entropy decreases more slowly than in animals.

There are trees that live more than years. For example in the turtle life processes are slower than in mammals and faster than in trees. It can live up to years.

For each living creature its own time can be defined, which somewhat differs from the time of the environment.

This time correlates with parameters of the vital activity of living organisms. When considering the origin of life, the question arises whether there is information in surrounding space for this event.

The information in the electromagnetic spectrum spreads with the speed of light. The plant world has originated 1. The spectrum of reflected light from plants in the red diapason is interrupted.

This means that if this information can be disseminated and there is a highly-sensitive apparatus at a distance of 1. Let us imagine that from the Earth there is information at 1 light year.

This information is identical on a sphere with a radius of 1 light year. Any observer from this sphere sees different information compared to other observers.

Yet each observer from the sphere observes the center in the same way. In this regard, in the electromagnetic spectrum there is no identical information in different points, if a center of the coordinate system for observation has not been marked.

This is an illustration of how time and space are related, when information is disseminated at the speed of light.

Light quanta or photons have no mass. The presence of mass leads to deceleration. Bachtschissarai und die Umgebungen - der bequemste und vertraute Teil des Krimvorgebirges.

Es gibt keine Campings. Es sind die komfortabelen Jagdvillen aufgebaut. Also, sehen und jetzt vollkommen bajskimi die Villen der Beamten der Moskauer Stadtverwaltung und andere in der Umgebung der Landschaft, die von der Krimschweiz genannt ist, mit wirklich weich ohne Hitze vom Klima aus.

Wenn sie zu nehmen ist es auf der Bachtschissaraier Konservenfabrik gerade befindet er sich nicht weit von der Eisenbahnstation - werden die Preise die Stimmung ohne jeden Wein heben.

In mit. Wenn es allen in der Welt neben 24 Tausenden Sorten der kulturellen Weintraube, so in der Sammlung "Magaratscha" ihrer 3.

Es ist zweite in Europa und vierte in der Welt die lebendige Sammlung.

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Aber sie wurde von fast jedem Mann an der Stelle getroffen. Joseph sees this fact as the basis of the special difficulties facing creole languages attempting to standardise.

In his argument he draws on two notions developed by Kloss , According to Joseph , this is the crux of the creole standardisation problem: when a creole grows in Ausbau, developing in the direction of its superposed model, it must simultaneously shrink in Abstand, since that H model is the same 'target' language from which it needs to establish its independent validity.

Joseph Thus creole languages like Jamaican and Guyanese are trapped in a kind of vicious circle. They can only establish independence by becoming less like Standard English Abstand.

Yet they can only elaborate themselves as Standard languages by becoming more like Standard English Ausbau. Orthographic problems and solutions for Caribbean Creoles Orthographic conflicts in non-English-lexicon creoles Although the possibility of writing a language does not by itself imply standardisation indeed, "many non-standard dialects have been written alphabetically for centuries" Joseph writers such as Milroy and Milroy and Joseph are agreed on the crucial link between writing and language standardisation.

Therefore, it will be useful to discuss issues of creole orthography within the context of standardisation. Orthography, potentially the most visible representation of written language norms, often turns out to be one of the most contested aspects of standardisation.

For many users, after all, "the language" is the standard written language and that alone. If "codification" of the orthography is a matter for linguists implementing a phonological theory, persuading governments and the general public to adopt a spelling system is a highly political act.

Ideology, not phonology, turns out to be the key factor in adoption of an orthography. This emerges clearly in the discussion of competing orthographies for Haitian by Schieffelin and Doucet As Schieffelin and Doucet write : [ Because acceptance of an orthography is based more often on political and social considerations than on linguistic or pedagogical factors, orthographic debates are rich sites for investigating competing nationalist discourses.

Several daily newspapers and other regular publications including some published in the Netherlands for the Antillean community there mean that there is no shortage of reading matter for Papiamentu speakers.

According to Holm , Papiamentu enjoys unusually high prestige for a creole language: it is spoken by all social classes in many settings and is widely used in the media.

More to the point, its speakers have chosen to emphasise the relationship with Spanish by adopting a different official orthography from the other two islands.

In this section we have seen that even in two cases of relatively successful standardisation of creole languages, orthography has been an important and divisive issue; furthermore, much of the debate boils down to a dispute over a small subset of the total number of written characters.

Proposals for a standard creole orthography have come almost exclusively from academics, and discussion of orthographic issues is confined mainly to academic circles.

Phonology meets ideology Page 6 This is not to say that the English-lexicon creoles of the Caribbean remain unwritten.

There is probably a good deal of unpublished personal writing as well. For English-lexicon creoles too, there is potentially a choice between a modified Standard English orthography and one based on strictly phonemic principles, or some combination of these.

Yet in spite of its use in a number of dictionaries and many linguistic texts, it has so far not been used in any publications for a general readership though Devonish b , which is not addressed to linguists, gives an example of a phonemic text.

In some ways, it is not surprising that the phonemic orthography has not been taken up by writers, since it requires a conscious effort to learn and is unfamiliar to most potential readers.

Nevertheless, linguists who have an interest in the matter are almost without exception in favour of a phonemic orthography. In this case, we find that all the arguments are in favour of creating a system as distinct as possible from the standard lexifier language.

Cassidy, for example, writes : The more the creole differs phonemically from the lexicalizing language English, French, Dutch - whatever , the more it must differ in its orthography.

It should be taught and learned as a system of its own. There is no learning advantage in having it reveal its etymological relationship to the European or other lexifier.

Paramount should be a phonemically accurate, consistent, autonomous system. As in the case of Haiti, interested parties take up ideological positions.

Devonish who argues a, b for Creole to be made an official language in the Caribbean and Hellinger are both strongly in favour of a phonemic orthography.

Hellinger summarises the benefits of the latter: A genuinely creole orthography will strengthen the structural and psychological identity of the creole; it may in fact initiate or support a recreolization process; it will provide a source for higher prestige and may therefore facilitate native speakers' identification with the creole language and culture.

Hellinger By contrast, If at this point it was decided to introduce and officially support a creole orthography based on English conventions, it is likely that the effects would include the following: - the widespread conception of the creole as an inferior variety of English would be strengthened; - an English-based orthography would obscure and eventually help to eradicate much of the creole's linguistic phonemic authenticity; - in no way would linguistic creativity as in the field of word formation receive momentum [ Whether at the same time the creole can elaborate a literary standard without modelling itself on the lexifier, thus growing simultaneously in terms of Ausbau and Abstand pace Joseph is an empirical question - one which cannot be answered unless some serious attempt is made to introduce a standard variety for at least one of the English-lexicon creoles.

An alternative approach to this issue would be to study the practices of writers using an English-lexicon creole, with a view to looking for evidence of Ausbau and Abstand produced informally by writers themselves.

In the next section, I describe such an attempt. There is by now a substantial body of written literature wholly or partly in Creole also known as Patois or Nation Language and published in Britain.

This includes a variety of written genres, especially poetry some of it originally recited against a musical background - "dub poetry" , plays and novels.

Some prose fiction is written partly in Creole; it is rare, however, for the Creole to extend beyond the dialogue to the narrative.

Since it can be assumed that anyone writing Creole in Britain is familiar with the written conventions of Standard English, which they will have learnt at school, we would expect some variant of Standard English spelling conventions to be the basis for whatever conventions they adopt.

One possible outcome, in theory, would be that most writers actually arrive at similar conventions. Another possible outcome would be a high degree of variability, with little consistency among writers.

This would indicate that there was no explicit or implicit model or norm which writers felt they should follow. While different individual writers may have their own reasonably consistent style - for example, preferring either to use or to omit apostrophes marking "missing" letters - there is no norm for the spelling of most words.

Even when there is only one non-Standard English variant spelling, it is likely to alternate, even in the same text, with the Standard English spelling of the same word or a similar word which contains the same sound.

The variability is well illustrated by extracts from a well-known poem by Linton Kwesi Johnson, Sonny's lettah, reproduced in Appendix 1 originally a dub backed by music, recorded on the Forces of Victory album Version B appears apparently hand-lettered on the cover of a 12" disco version of the record i.

Phonology meets ideology Page 8 In both versions, there are numerous nonstandard spellings to signal pronunciations different from most British varieties of English.

However, Version A is much more liberal in its use of apostrophes to signal letters omitted A: t'ump, mout'; B: tump, mout , and also uses other unconventional spellings like grung B: groun' and murdah B: murder.

In addition, both versions use a number of unusual spellings which do not, apparently, reflect Creole pronunciations substantially different from British English ones: for example, dhu, tuff, y'u.

Here too, A has more apostrophes signalling omitted letters: he'd, le'd, de'd and from an earlier part of the poem hus'le, bus'le.

This example indicates that substantial variation in spelling between writers is possible even when the Creole text being written is the same.

A Corpus of Written British Creole In order to investigate the spelling practices of writers using creole to find out what they actually are doing, in I established a Corpus of Written British Creole including samples of writing from different genres.

The Corpus was to include only texts written by Caribbeans who were either British-born or who had spent much of their lives in Britain and whose writing related to mainly British rather than Caribbean themes.

Since authors were not always easy to trace and those who could be traced did not always give permission for their texts to be made machine-readable, the computerised Corpus represents only a fraction of all the texts available, and is small about words.

In spite of this, the Corpus shows that there is a large amount of variation in spelling. Examples are shown below in Tables 1 to 3. The tables show different types of words according to etymology and phonology.

Spellings which appear in the tables in bold are attested in the machine-readable Corpus of Written British Creole; the others are attested elsewhere at least once.

Table 2 consists of words which have no apparent cognate or source word in Standard English - words for which there is no Standard English model which writers can follow.

All the words in Tables 3 and 4 have Standard English sources but potentially differ at the phonetic or phonemic level.

Words in Table 3 are different from their British English equivalents at the phonemic level. Words in Table 4 are examples of words which have non-standard spellings in the Corpus of Written British Creole, but do not belong in any of the other categories.

These words are different from British English at most at the phonetic level, in other words they contain the same phonemes in both Creole and English but the phonetic realisation of these may be different.

The words chosen for inclusion in these tables are only a subset of all the possible words in the categories represented by each table, and the alternative spellings listed are almost certainly not an exhaustive list of those to be found.

Nevertheless they give a good indication of how much variation there is. Words not in bold are attested elsewhere.

Phonology meets ideology Page 10 In Tables 1 and 2 we find a range of variant spellings. In Table 3 likewise we find a range of variants, reflecting the fact that these words as well as being phonemically different, are also different phonetically from their British English equivalents.

Of the factors which make a feature salient, the most important Trudgill are surface phonemic contrast and the degree of phonetic difference, in that order.

In other words, for someone learning the phonology of a new dialect of their first language i. Of lesser importance will be points of pronunciation where the systems themselves are not different, but the sounds representing a particular phoneme are substantially different.

This is just the kind of contrast shown by the words in Table 3, which account for a large proportion of nonstandard spellings used by Creole writers.

The pronunciation of the words in this table differs from British English pronunciation very slightly if at all.

Frequently such differences are not signalled at all in orthography, unless they had greater salience e. So it is especially striking that exactly these kinds of differences are sometimes signalled by writers using Creole.

I shall return to this point later. Of these, seh has become almost a conventional spelling for say. By contrast, no has several variants.

It is notable that very few writers mark any one of these phonetic differences consistently. Other phonetic differences from BrE tend to be marked very unevenly, with writers marking an idiosyncratic selection of features, and then not always consistently.

This is generally in accordance with the findings of Hellinger for texts in Creole produced in the Caribbean.

It is also, of course, in accordance with the variable pronunciation of the items in question, which may have, at different times, a "Creole" pronunciation, a "Standard" pronunciation and a local British e.

London pronunciation in the speech of the same person see Sebba Abstand and Ausbau in British Creole writing Just why should writers be so concerned with marking specific phonetic features of Creole?

Standard English is spoken with a large variety of accents. Many British and some North American accents share features of phonology with Jamaican Creole but do not indicate these by distinctions in orthography.

The existing spelling system of Standard English is "broad" enough to cope with them, mainly because - in spite of what most users of English probably believe - it is not a truly alphabetic system, but has "reverted to a partially logographic state" Joseph The individual letters which make up a word do not necessarily tell the reader how that word is pronounced, in any accent.

In spite of this fact, the degree of phonetic detail to which writers using Creole pay attention can be considerable.

For example, the following is part of a description of a "battle of sounds" discos written in a London school by a boy from a Caribbean family this narrative was produced, at the teacher's request, in two versions, "Standard" and "Jamaican" - this is from the latter : Dem soon start to warm up, tes'ing mikes and mekking sure dat all speaker an' ting was connect up an' working good.

Meanwhile some o' de older de rudy was buil'ing up dem splif an' de smaller bwoy child dem try to capture off even if i's only a likkle draw.

Everybody full up wid excitement and plenty people was arguing wid each aneddur 'bout who would win McLeod , emphasis mine. Phonology meets ideology Page 12 Of this McLeod writes The "i's" seems almost pedantic, suggesting that the writer has given some thought to the use of "is" for "it is" and has decided that this is a contracted form, not a deletion of the pronoun "it".

McLeod In fact, the writer of this passage has three times used the apostrophe to indicate the presence of a glottal stop perhaps unrealistically in the case of buil'ing.

This is interesting as glottal stops in these positions are characteristic of London speech rather than Creole; they do not, however, have phonemic status and could easily go unnoticed, or at least unrecorded.

We also saw in the previous section that many writers use nonstandard spellings even for words where there is little or no difference in pronunciation between Creole and other relevant i.

Noting a similar tendency in Caribbean writing, Hellinger remarks that speakers' readiness for a more radical departure from the dominant model becomes evident in numerous idiosyncratic spellings.

Spellings like y'u, dhu, 'hole and tuff can be seen as wholly or partly conscious attempts by some writers to subvert and challenge Standard English spelling.

Among the various components that make up the written language, orthography is one that affects both the visual aspect of the text and the phonetic interpretation which the reader will give to the words.

It is thus potentially symbolic on both these levels. We saw that in the case of Haiti, great symbolic significance attached to orthographic choices.

For the writer of British Creole, too, spelling is one means of establishing a symbolic difference from Standard English.

Orthography is not the only factor. However, where orthography is different from the other factors is that it can establish symbolic differences which do not reflect real variation at any other level.

Words with Std. It appears to have no other function. As a further illustration, here is part of a poem by a Caribbean-heritage London poet, Sandra Mundle, which was published in 11 Ole Woman Wha meck yu queeze up ina semi pan yu own ana fret?

You nuh fraid a isolation dampness an rain wet? Ole woman yu me pitty yu greying meck me sad if only yu'd pac dat grip dat alone meck me glad.

Ole woman me nar cuss yu fah experience write pan yu face me respec all me elders so me nar call dung no disgrace.

There is an interesting parallel between the practices of British Creole writers and those writing in Lowland Scots, another language whose long relationship with Standard English could be held to have hindered the development of independent norms: In the absence of a distinct orthography for Scots, those wishing to write in the language have, since the seventeenth century, generally adopted the conventions of English spelling, modified to a greater or lesser extent according to the preferences of the individual writer: the theoretical unsoundness of this procedure has been obscured by a widespread failure to realise the true nature of the relationship between the two Phonology meets ideology Page 14 tongues actually cognate dialects, but taken to be the 'correct' and 'vulgar' form of the same language.

McClure Nevertheless, many individual writers exercise their preferences for "modifications", often using the spelling of earlier writers such as Burns as their model.

Writing about the popularity of local spellings in Glasgow which "improve on" the Standard , Macafee writes : 13 14 Many of the improvements on standard spellings coincide with common spelling errors, and this allows different writers to arrive independently at the same conventions.

It also helps to give the system the character of an anti-standard rather than a local standard [emphasis mine].

An "anti-standard", then, is perhaps what is developing for British Creole in the absence of any planned standardisation.

The questions were sent out to writers together with a release form giving their permission to include a named piece of work in the Corpus database.

The questions asked were the following: 1. If so, what is the model and where does it come from? If so, do they have explicit guidelines regarding spelling?

Is your work ever written down from a recorded spoken version such as dub , rather than originating on paper? To date only seven writers have answered, but these came from a range including some of the best and the least known, and writing in a range of genres.

Question 1, which was aimed at finding out whether writers were consciously using some model as as a basis for their spellings.

However, writers tended to interpret it as referring to a spoken model, so that answers to Question 2 tended to refer to Jamaican speech.

Questions 4 and 5 were aimed at finding out whether any process of standardisation was going on under pressure from publishers: there was no evidence of this.

Question 6 was intended to determine whether spoken or written forms came first for individual writers, to see what effect this might have: no generalisations can be made at this stage.

Phonology meets ideology Page 15 In spite of the small amount of data, the answers to Question 3 are interesting.

The answers received are given in Appendix 2. Four out of seven respondents mention the words sound, pronunciation or phonetic as relevant to their written representations of Creole.

Thus there seems to be a conscious focus on signalling phonetic difference from English. Yet this, as we saw in the last section, is something that writers including those who responded to the questionnaire are actually doing, even if they are not aware of it.

Ideology meets phonology: "autonomous" and "ideological" approaches to orthography. As in the case of literacy, the autonomous model is derived at least in part from ideologies which are rarely acknowledged or made explicit.

It will be argued here that an ideological model of orthography, one which concerns itself with orthography as a set of cultural practices, is preferable to the autonomous model on the grounds that it is both more honest - as it makes explicit its ideological basis - and more explanatory - as it takes into account the social and cultural context of orthographic practices.

The autonomous model of orthography: "reducing a language to writing" Proponents of the autonomous model of literacy do not regard all writing systems as equally good.

Instead, they have a clear preference for phonemic systems. Phonetic systems are therefore adapted to expressing every nuance of individual thought Goody and Watt It is worth a brief examination of the history of this belief in the superiority and neutrality of phonemic writing.

Clearly it is grounded in the structuralist view of phonology which dates back at least to Saussure and the beginning of the 20th Century.

During the s and s, the dominant American Structuralist paradigm viewed the phonology of a language as a selfcontained system with a fixed number of contrasting elements.

This could be interpreted to mean that the optimum writing system was one which had written symbols in a one-to-one relationship with phonemes, and this is precisely how many linguists of that school did interpret it.

Indeed, any other kind of relationship between phonemes and symbols would not reflect the elegant symmetry of the phonological system, and could only confuse and hamper the user of the writing system.

Much of this linguistic work was carried out among indigenous peoples of the Americas in the context of Bible translation and literacy teaching.

The most important of the organisations devoted to this kind of work was the Summer Institute of Linguistics, whose own members were among the proponents of the phonemic principle of writing.

According to Barros , The idea that every language has a limited set of sounds with intuitive value for native speakers led to the position that an alphabet could only be 'natural' and 'efficient' Swadesh, a, p.

The linguistic principle, 'for each phoneme only one symbol', became the basic rule of the indigenous alphabet Swadesh c: It is not coincidental that this orthodoxy was so much in keeping with the principles of American Structuralism, for many of the most influential American linguists for example, Pike and Gleason were also associates of the Summer Institute of Linguistics.

Furthermore, as Barros points out Barros , the evangelical model of indigenous education in Central America as put forward by the S.

Having achieved this acceptance, it has not been seriously challenged within mainstream linguistics. Phonology meets ideology Page 18 Choice of symbols While the phonemic principle itself remains unchallenged, choices have had to be made regarding which symbols should represent which phoneme.

At least for American and European linguists, the choice has principally been one between using symbols of the Roman alphabet either with values as assigned in the International Phonetic Alphabet, or as used in the conventional orthography of a European language which is used in the region where the newlywritten language is spoken.


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