Louis Xiv Inhaltsverzeichnis
Ludwig XIV., französisch Louis XIV, war ein französischer Prinz aus dem Haus Bourbon und von bis zu seinem Tod König von Frankreich und Navarra sowie Kofürst von Andorra. Ludwig XIV., französisch Louis XIV (* 5. September in Schloss Saint-Germain-en-Laye; † 1. September in Schloss Versailles), war ein französischer. Louis XIV bezeichnet: Ludwig XIV. (–), König von Frankreich und Navarra („Sonnenkönig“); Louis XIV (Band), eine amerikanische Rockband; Louis. Der "Sonnenkönig" Ludwig XIV. wird schon als Kind König von Frankreich, das er insgesamt mehr als 70 Jahre regiert. Dabei setzt er neue Maßstäbe wie kein. Louis XIV, Sonnenkönig (). Er war in vierfacher Hinsicht eine Ausnahmeerscheinung. Der französische König und Gründer der saarländischen Stadt.
Der "Sonnenkönig" Ludwig XIV. wird schon als Kind König von Frankreich, das er insgesamt mehr als 70 Jahre regiert. Dabei setzt er neue Maßstäbe wie kein. Ludwig XIV. / Louis XIV. / Ludwig der Vierzehnte – Der Sonnenkönig. Eine Biographie: Mit 16 Bildtafeln. Aus dem Französischen übertragen von Gertrude Aretz. Ludwig XIV., französisch Louis XIV, war ein französischer Prinz aus dem Haus Bourbon und von bis zu seinem Tod König von Frankreich und Navarra sowie Kofürst von Andorra. Ludwig XIV. / Louis XIV. / Ludwig der Vierzehnte – Der Sonnenkönig. Eine Biographie: Mit 16 Bildtafeln. Aus dem Französischen übertragen von Gertrude Aretz. Ludwig XIV. / Louis XIV. / Ludwig der Vierzehnte - Der Sonnenkönig: Biografie: Aus dem Französischen von Gertrude Aretz | Bertrand, Louis | ISBN. Louis XIV(). Frankreichs berühmtester Herrscher, der Sonnenkönig Ludwig XIV galt als ausgesprochener Bett-Anbeter. Er besaß. Auf Geheiß von Frankreichs Monarch Ludwig XIV. wurde der Wegen seiner Ähnlichkeit mit Louis XIV. durfte ihn keiner je zu Gesicht. Devoted wife to Louis XIV. She died at Versailles at age 45, on July 30, , just three months after the court was moved to Versailles.
In that time, he transformed the monarchy, ushered in a golden age of art and literature, presided over a dazzling royal court at Versailles, annexed key territories and established his country as the dominant European power.
When the king died on May 14, , 4-year-old Louis inherited the crown of a fractured, unstable and nearly insolvent France.
Beginning in , their discontent erupted into a civil war known as the Fronde, which forced the royal family to flee Paris and instilled a lifelong fear of rebellion in the young king.
A diplomatic necessity more than anything else, the union produced six children, of whom only one, Louis , survived to adulthood. He viewed himself as the direct representative of God, endowed with a divine right to wield the absolute power of the monarchy.
Immediately after assuming control of the government, Louis worked tirelessly to centralize and tighten control of France and its overseas colonies.
His finance minister, Jean-Baptiste Colbert , implemented reforms that sharply reduced the deficit and fostered the growth of industry, while his war minister, the Marquis de Louvois , expanded and reorganized the French army.
Louis also managed to pacify and disempower the historically rebellious nobles, who had fomented no less than 11 civil wars in four decades, by luring them to his court and habituating them to the opulent lifestyle there.
A hard-working and meticulous ruler who oversaw his programs down to the last detail, Louis XIV nevertheless appreciated art, literature, music, theater and sports.
Most famously, he transformed a royal hunting lodge in Versailles, a village 25 miles southwest of the capital, into one of the largest palaces in the world, officially moving his court and government there in It was against this awe-inspiring backdrop that Louis tamed the nobility and impressed foreign dignitaries, using entertainment, ceremony and a highly codified system of etiquette to assert his supremacy.
Under pressure from the English, Swedish and especially the Dutch, France retreated and returned the region to Spain, gaining only some frontier towns in Flanders.
The ensuing war, fought on both hemispheres, lasted from to ; France emerged with most of its territory intact but its resources severely strained.
The long conflict plunged a famine-ridden France into massive debt, turning public opinion against the crown.
In , the devoutly Catholic king revoked the Edict of Nantes, issued by his grandfather Henry IV in , which had granted freedom of worship and other rights to French Protestants, known as Huguenots.
With the Edict of Fontainebleau, Louis ordered the destruction of Protestant churches, the closure of Protestant schools and the expulsion of Protestant clergy.
Protestants would be barred from assembling and their marriages would be deemed invalid. Baptism and education in the Catholic faith would be required of all children.
Roughly 1 million Huguenots lived in France at the time, and many were artisans or other types of skilled workers. He was the older of two brothers the other being Philippe.
In , before his fifth birthday, his father died, and Louis inherited the throne of France. Mazarin had guided the nation through the later stages of the Thirty Years' War In this war France struggled against the Habsburg dynasty that ruled Spain for military supremacy in Europe.
After Mazarin died in , Louis declared that he would rule France without a chief minister, something no French king had done in living memory.
He intended to rule as an absolute monarch, believing that his power as king was derived from God and that he was responsible to God alone.
He was obliged to rule for the benefit of his people. While Louis assumed responsibility for decision making, he understood that he must rule within the constraints of the laws and customs of his kingdom.
Louis consulted widely with his nobles and ministers , and he met weekly with members of his high council. He created an informal cabinet, which was eventually led by Jean-Baptiste Colbert , chief minister of finance.
Nevertheless, the system of absolute monarchy emphasized the role of the king, and no monarch was more successful in creating the image of monarchy than Louis XIV.
He took the sun as his emblem and connected himself to its radiant image. Over 30, men worked on constructing the Palace of Versailles, a project that drained the royal treasury for decades.
Expenses included not only building but also diverting rivers, piping in fresh water, and planting thousands of orange trees to mask the smell of sewage that could not be properly drained away.
It became a symbol of his Absolute Monarchy. Although Louis dreamed of a Spanish inheritance for his heirs, his military policy was not to expand French territory.
The French aggression in the Spanish Netherlands caused relations between France and Holland to deteriorate. The Dutch had already fought the Spanish for generations to protect against an invasion of their country.
They had no intention of allowing the French to pose the same threat by occupying the territories on their border. The result was war in the Netherlands from to , during which Louis again demonstrated the effectiveness of French might.
In a sweeping campaign, Louis almost succeeded in conquering Holland. To protect themselves, the Dutch opened their dikes, flooded the countryside, and turned Amsterdam into a virtual island.
War resumed, however, when Spain and Austria allied themselves with Holland, and Louis signed a treaty with England in to keep the English navy neutral.
Neither side could win a decisive victory, and both suffered from financial exhaustion, which ultimately led to a treaty to end the war.
Louis revoked, or ended, the Treaty of Nantes. This means that everybody in France could worship the way they wanted to. Because of this, 50 thousand Protestant workers left France and went to America , England , and Germany.
While Louis ruled, France became the most powerful country in all of Europe, and many other countries copied the French people's way of dressing and thinking.Mazarin bereitete Ludwig zielgerichtet auf seine Rolle als absolutistischer Herrscher source. Er setzte deshalb die protestantische Bevölkerung unter Druck, vor allem durch das Edikt von Fontainebleau Click to see more hingegen lehnte jede Teilung seines Reiches ab. Er war in vierfacher Hinsicht eine Ausnahmeerscheinung. Allerdings ist unter Ludwig XIV.
Louis Xiv VideoLouis XIV "Finding Out True Love Is Blind" Reiten und Fechten erweiterten das Ausbildungsprogramm, das durch more info Inhalte MalereiZeichnenArchitekturTanz und Musik vervollständigt wurde. Antoine in Paris bestattet. Er schwächte den Adelindem er die Adeligen lieber zu Mitgliedern seines Hofes go here zu regionalen Provinzherrschern machte. Ludwig förderte Kunst und Wissenschaft, was eine Blütezeit der französischen Kultur zur Folge just click for source, die sich im Stil Louis xiv ausdrückte. Die https://therealcommunity.se/stream-filme-deutsch/ard-serie-rote-rosen.php Forschung hat allerdings gezeigt, dass die Zahl der Geflohenen bei weitem zu gering war, um einen spürbaren Schaden an der französischen Article source herbeizuführen. Https://therealcommunity.se/deutsche-serien-stream/gangsta-anime.php Jahr gelang es Mazarin, das republikanische England unter Oliver Cromwell in einem Geheimvertrag here Bundesgenossen gegen die Spanier zu gewinnen. Read article innen wurde Nordfrankreich einer Zollunion unterworfen, um so innerfranzösische Handelshemmnisse abzubauen. Https://therealcommunity.se/serien-stream-deutsch/gdith-piaf-la-vie-en-rose.php unmittelbare Zeugen gestaltete Ludwig sein intensives Liebesleben. Oktober geöffnet und der darin liegende Leichnam exhumiert. König Philipp II. Spanien sah sich gezwungen, den Frieden zu suchen.
Louis XIV had a brother named Philippe, who was two years younger. Not much more than a toddler, Louis XIV succeeded his father to the throne, becoming the leader of 19 million French subjects and a highly unstable government.
Over the course of his childhood, Louis XIV was primed as a leader, receiving a practical education rather than a scholarly one.
In an attempt to overthrow the crown, they waged a civil war, called the Fronde, against its supporters. Throughout the long war, Louis XIV suffered many hardships, including poverty and starvation.
After the civil war ended, Mazarin began to build an elaborate administration as Louis XIV stood by and observed his mentor.
The marriage ensured ratification of the peace treaty that Mazarin had sought to establish with Hapsburg Spain. It wasn't until Mazarin died in , when Louis XIV was in his 20s, that the young king finally took control of the French government.
Upon assuming full responsibility for the kingdom, Louis XIV quickly set about reforming France according to his own vision.
His first goal as absolute monarch was to centralize and rein in control of France. During his reign, Louis XIV managed to improve France's disorganized system of taxation and limit formerly haphazard borrowing practices.
He also conveniently declared members of nobility exempt from paying taxes, causing them to become even more fiscally dependent on the crown.
In implementing administrative reforms toward a more orderly and stable French government, Louis XIV forced provincial nobles to relinquish their former political influence.
In so doing, he constructed a more centralized administration with the bourgeoisie, or middle class, as its foundation. Along with his changes to the government, Louis XIV created a number of programs and institutes to infuse more of the arts into French culture.
Great Characters. Coming to the throne at a tender age, tutored by Cardinal Mazarin, the Sun King embodied the principles of absolutism.
In he moved the royal Court to the Palace of Versailles, the defining symbol of his power and influence in Europe.
Taking the throne at the age of four following the death of his father, King Louis XIII , the young monarch received a thorough education from his mother Anne of Austria and his godfather Cardinal Mazarin.
Originating as a dispute between the monarchy and the Parlement de Paris, the rebellion subsequently spread to the aristocracy.
He would never forget this experience. Their marriage sealed the reconciliation between France and neighbouring Spain.
The royal couple had six children. After the death of the queen in , the King secretly married Madame de Maintenon.
With enough room to house the whole court, the Palace and its surrounding buildings rapidly became symbols of an age when the nobility were prepared to go to any lengths to be close to the King, who respected the royal tradition whereby the monarch had to be accessible to his courtiers.
Intimidating, majestic, kept informed by an army of spies, the king controlled everything. The King cultivated a broad variety of interests and excelled in numerous fields, such as music he played the guitar , dance performing in ballets , and horse-riding Louis XIV was an excellent rider.
He also loved hunting, promenades, fencing, shows and parlour games, and was a great fan of billiards. At the Palace of Versailles he staged the finest comedies, operas and tragedies and organised spectacular parties.
At the start of his reign, before turning to more political allegories, Louis XIV chose the sun as his personal emblem.
The sun is the symbol of Apollo, god of peace and the arts; it is also the star which gives life to all things, rising and setting with unfailing regularity.
Though the unstinting regularity of his life and with the public getting-up and going-to-bed ceremonies, he hammered home the symbolic parallels.
The Palace of Versailles is replete with representations and allegorical allusions to the sun god laurel wreathes, lyres, tripods combined with royal portraits and emblems.
Those Protestants who had resisted conversion were now to be baptised forcibly into the established church. Historians have debated Louis' reasons for issuing the Edict of Fontainebleau.
He may have been seeking to placate Pope Innocent XI , with whom relations were tense and whose aid was necessary to determine the outcome of a succession crisis in the Electorate of Cologne.
He may also have acted to upstage Emperor Leopold I and regain international prestige after the latter defeated the Turks without Louis' help.
Otherwise, he may simply have desired to end the remaining divisions in French society dating to the Wars of Religion by fulfilling his coronation oath to eradicate heresy.
Many historians have condemned the Edict of Fontainebleau as gravely harmful to France. On the other hand, there are historians who view this as an exaggeration.
They argue that most of France's preeminent Protestant businessmen and industrialists converted to Catholicism and remained. What is certain is that reaction to the Edict was mixed.
Protestants across Europe were horrified at the treatment of their co-religionists, but most Catholics in France applauded the move.
Nonetheless, it is indisputable that Louis' public image in most of Europe, especially in Protestant regions, was dealt a severe blow.
In the end, however, despite renewed tensions with the Camisards of south-central France at the end of his reign, Louis may have helped ensure that his successor would experience fewer instances of the religion-based disturbances that had plagued his forebears.
French society would sufficiently change by the time of his descendant, Louis XVI , to welcome tolerance in the form of the Edict of Versailles , also known as the Edict of Tolerance.
This restored to non-Catholics their civil rights and the freedom to worship openly. The War of the League of Augsburg , which lasted from to , initiated a period of decline in Louis' political and diplomatic fortunes.
The conflict arose from two events in the Rhineland. All that remained of his immediate family was Louis' sister-in-law, Elizabeth Charlotte.
German law ostensibly barred her from succeeding to her brother's lands and electoral dignity, but it was unclear enough for arguments in favour of Elizabeth Charlotte to have a chance of success.
Conversely, the princess was clearly entitled to a division of the family's personal property. Louis pressed her claims to land and chattels, hoping the latter, at least, would be given to her.
The archbishopric had traditionally been held by the Wittelsbachs of Bavaria. However, the Bavarian claimant to replace Maximilian Henry, Prince Joseph Clemens of Bavaria , was at that time not more than 17 years old and not even ordained.
Louis sought instead to install his own candidate, William Egon of Fürstenberg , to ensure the key Rhenish state remained an ally.
In light of his foreign and domestic policies during the early s, which were perceived as aggressive, Louis' actions, fostered by the succession crises of the late s, created concern and alarm in much of Europe.
Their stated intention was to return France to at least the borders agreed to in the Treaty of Nijmegen. Another event that Louis found threatening was the Glorious Revolution of , in England.
However, when James II's son James was born, he took precedence in the succession over his elder sisters. This seemed to herald an era of Catholic monarchs in England.
He sailed for England with troops despite Louis' warning that France would regard it as a provocation.
Witnessing numerous desertions and defections, even among those closest to him, James II fled England. Parliament declared the throne vacant, and offered it to James's daughter Mary II and his son-in-law and nephew William.
Before this happened, Louis expected William's expedition to England to absorb his energies and those of his allies, so he dispatched troops to the Rhineland after the expiry of his ultimatum to the German princes requiring confirmation of the Truce of Ratisbon and acceptance of his demands about the succession crises.
This military manoeuvre was also intended to protect his eastern provinces from Imperial invasion by depriving the enemy army of sustenance, thus explaining the pre-emptive scorched earth policy pursued in much of southwestern Germany the "Devastation of the Palatinate".
His triumphs at the Battles of Fleurus in , Steenkerque in , and Landen in preserved northern France from invasion.
Although an attempt to restore James II failed at the Battle of the Boyne in , France accumulated a string of victories from Flanders in the north, Germany in the east, and Italy and Spain in the south, to the high seas and the colonies.
Louis personally supervised the captures of Mons in and Namur in Luxembourg gave France the defensive line of the Sambre by capturing Charleroi in France also overran most of the Duchy of Savoy after the battles of Marsaglia and Staffarde in While naval stalemate ensued after the French victory at the Battle of Beachy Head in and the Allied victory at Barfleur-La Hougue in , the Battle of Torroella in exposed Catalonia to French invasion, culminating in the capture of Barcelona.
Louis XIV ordered the surprise destruction of a Flemish city to divert the attention of these troops. This led to the bombardment of Brussels , in which buildings were destroyed, including the entire city-center.
The strategy failed, as Namur fell three weeks later, but harmed Louis XIV's reputation: a century later, Napoleon deemed the bombardment "as barbarous as it was useless.
Peace was broached by Sweden in By , both sides evidently wanted peace, and secret bilateral talks began, but to no avail.
Thereafter, members of the League of Augsburg rushed to the peace table, and negotiations for a general peace began in earnest, culminating in the Treaty of Ryswick of By manipulating their rivalries and suspicions, Louis divided his enemies and broke their power.
The treaty yielded many benefits for France. Louis secured permanent French sovereignty over all of Alsace, including Strasbourg, and established the Rhine as the Franco-German border which persists to this day.
However, he returned Catalonia and most of the Reunions. French military superiority might have allowed him to press for more advantageous terms.
Thus, his generosity to Spain with regard to Catalonia has been read as a concession to foster pro-French sentiment and may ultimately have induced King Charles II to name Louis' grandson Philip, Duke of Anjou , as heir to the throne of Spain.
Lorraine , which had been occupied by the French since , was returned to its rightful Duke Leopold , albeit with a right of way to the French military.
The Dutch were given the right to garrison forts in the Spanish Netherlands that acted as a protective barrier against possible French aggression.
Though in some respects, the Treaty of Ryswick may appear a diplomatic defeat for Louis since he failed to place client rulers in control of the Palatinate or the Electorate of Cologne, he did in fact fulfill many of the aims laid down in his ultimatum.
By the time of the Treaty of Ryswick, the Spanish succession had been a source of concern to European leaders for well over forty years.
He produced no children, however, and consequently had no direct heirs. The principal claimants to the throne of Spain belonged to the ruling families of France and Austria.
Based on the laws of primogeniture , France had the better claim as it originated from the eldest daughters in two generations. However, their renunciation of succession rights complicated matters.
In the case of Maria Theresa, nonetheless, the renunciation was considered null and void owing to Spain's breach of her marriage contract with Louis.
This agreement divided Spain's Italian territories between Louis's son le Grand Dauphin and the Archduke Charles, with the rest of the empire awarded to Joseph Ferdinand.
William III consented to permitting the Dauphin's new territories to become part of France when the latter succeeded to his father's throne.
In , he re-confirmed his will that named Joseph Ferdinand as his sole successor. Six months later, Joseph Ferdinand died.
The Dauphin would receive all of Spain's Italian territories. On his deathbed in , Charles II unexpectedly changed his will.
The clear demonstration of French military superiority for many decades before this time, the pro-French faction at the court of Spain, and even Pope Innocent XII convinced him that France was more likely to preserve his empire intact.
He thus offered the entire empire to the Dauphin's second son Philip, Duke of Anjou, provided it remained undivided. Anjou was not in the direct line of French succession, thus his accession would not cause a Franco-Spanish union.
If the Duke of Berry declined it, it would go to the Archduke Charles, then to the distantly related House of Savoy if Charles declined it.
Louis was confronted with a difficult choice. He might agree to a partition of the Spanish possessions and avoid a general war, or accept Charles II's will and alienate much of Europe.
Initially, Louis may have been inclined to abide by the partition treaties. However, the Dauphin's insistence persuaded Louis otherwise.
He emphasised that, should it come to war, William III was unlikely to stand by France since he "made a treaty to avoid war and did not intend to go to war to implement the treaty".
Eventually, therefore, Louis decided to accept Charles II's will. Most European rulers accepted Philip as king, though some only reluctantly.
Depending on one's views of the war as inevitable or not, Louis acted reasonably or arrogantly. Admittedly, he may only have been hypothesising a theoretical eventuality and not attempting a Franco-Spanish union.
But his actions were certainly not read as being disinterested. In , Philip transferred the asiento the right to supply slaves to Spanish colonies to France, alienating English traders.
These actions enraged Britain and the Dutch Republic. Even before war was officially declared, hostilities began with Imperial aggression in Italy.
When finally declared, the War of the Spanish Succession would last almost until Louis's death, at great cost to him and the kingdom of France.
The war began with French successes, however the joint talents of John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough , and Eugene of Savoy checked these victories and broke the myth of French invincibility.
The duo allowed the Palatinate and Austria to occupy Bavaria after their victory at the Battle of Blenheim. The impact of this victory won the support of Portugal and Savoy.
Marlborough and Eugene of Savoy met again at the Battle of Oudenarde , which enabled them to mount an invasion of France.
Defeats, famine, and mounting debt greatly weakened France. Between and , over two million people died in two famines , made worse as foraging armies seized food supplies from the villages.
By the winter of —, Louis was willing to accept peace at nearly any cost. He agreed that the entire Spanish empire should be surrendered to the Archduke Charles, and he also consented to return to the frontiers of the Peace of Westphalia, giving up all the territories he had acquired over sixty years of his reign.
He could not speak for his grandson, however, and could not promise that Philip V would accept these terms.
Thus, the Allies demanded that Louis single-handedly attack his own grandson to force these terms on him. If he could not achieve this within the year, the war would resume.
Louis could not accept these terms. The final phases of the War of the Spanish Succession demonstrated that the Allies could not maintain the Archduke Charles in Spain just as surely as France could not retain the entire Spanish inheritance for King Philip V.
The Allies were definitively expelled from central Spain by the Franco-Spanish victories at the Battles of Villaviciosa and Brihuega in French forces elsewhere remained obdurate despite their defeats.
The Allies suffered a Pyrrhic victory at the Battle of Malplaquet with 21, casualties, twice that of the French. French military successes near the end of the war took place against the background of a changed political situation in Austria.
In , the Emperor Leopold I died. His elder son and successor, Joseph I , followed him in His heir was none other than the Archduke Charles, who secured control of all of his brother's Austrian land holdings.
If the Spanish empire then fell to him, it would have resurrected a domain as vast as that of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in the sixteenth century.
To the maritime powers of Great Britain and the Dutch Republic, this would have been as undesirable as a Franco-Spanish union. Britain kept Gibraltar and Menorca.
Britain gained most from the Treaty of Utrecht, but the final terms were much more favourable to France than those which were being discussed in peace negotiations in and Thanks to Louis, his allies the Electors of Bavaria and Cologne were restored to their pre-war status and returned their lands.
Louis and his wife Maria Theresa of Spain had six children from the marriage contracted for them in However, only one child, the eldest, survived to adulthood: Louis, le Grand Dauphin , known as Monseigneur.
Maria Theresa died in , whereupon Louis remarked that she had never caused him unease on any other occasion. Despite evidence of affection early on in their marriage, Louis was never faithful to Maria Theresa.
He took a series of mistresses, both official and unofficial. Through these liaisons, he produced numerous illegitimate children, most of whom he married to members of cadet branches of the royal family.
He first met her through her work caring for his children by Madame de Montespan, noting the care she gave to his favorite, Louis Auguste, Duke of Maine.
Louis was a pious and devout king who saw himself as the head and protector of the Gallican Church.
Louis made his devotions daily regardless of where he was, following the liturgical calendar regularly.
Towards the middle and the end of his reign, the centre for the King's religious observances was usually the Chapelle Royale at Versailles.
Ostentation was a distinguishing feature of daily Mass, annual celebrations, such as those of Holy Week , and special ceremonies. Louis generously supported the royal court of France and those who worked under him.
Louis also patronised the visual arts by funding and commissioning various artists, such as Charles Le Brun , Pierre Mignard , Antoine Coysevox , and Hyacinthe Rigaud , whose works became famous throughout Europe.
With the exception of the current Royal Chapel built near the end of Louis' reign , the palace achieved much of its current appearance after the third building campaign, which was followed by an official move of the royal court to Versailles on 6 May Versailles became a dazzling, awe-inspiring setting for state affairs and the reception of foreign dignitaries.
At Versailles, the king alone commanded attention. Several reasons have been suggested for the creation of the extravagant and stately palace, as well as the relocation of the monarchy's seat.
For example, the memoirist Saint-Simon speculated that Louis viewed Versailles as an isolated power center where treasonous cabals could be more readily discovered and foiled.
However, his sponsorship of many public works in Paris, such as the establishment of a police force and of street-lighting,  lend little credence to this theory.
While pharmacology was still quite rudimentary in his day, the Invalides pioneered new treatments and set new standards for hospice treatment.
The conclusion of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle , in , also induced Louis to demolish the northern walls of Paris in and replace them with wide tree-lined boulevards.
Louis also renovated and improved the Louvre and other royal residences. Gian Lorenzo Bernini was originally to plan additions to the Louvre; however, his plans would have meant the destruction of much of the existing structure, replacing it with an Italian summer villa in the centre of Paris.
With the relocation of the court to Versailles, the Louvre was given over to the arts and the public.
Few rulers in world history have commemorated themselves in as grand a manner as Louis. With his support, Colbert established from the beginning of Louis' personal reign a centralised and institutionalised system for creating and perpetuating the royal image.
The King was thus portrayed largely in majesty or at war, notably against Spain. This portrayal of the monarch was to be found in numerous media of artistic expression, such as painting, sculpture, theatre, dance, music, and the almanacs that diffused royal propaganda to the population at large.
Over his lifetime, Louis commissioned numerous works of art to portray himself, among them over formal portraits.
The earliest portrayals of Louis already followed the pictorial conventions of the day in depicting the child king as the majestically royal incarnation of France.
This idealisation of the monarch continued in later works, which avoided depictions of the effect of the smallpox that Louis contracted in In the s, Louis began to be shown as a Roman emperor, the god Apollo , or Alexander the Great , as can be seen in many works of Charles Le Brun , such as sculpture, paintings, and the decor of major monuments.
The depiction of the king in this manner focused on allegorical or mythological attributes, instead of attempting to produce a true likeness.
As Louis aged, so too did the manner in which he was depicted. Nonetheless, there was still a disparity between realistic representation and the demands of royal propaganda.
There is no better illustration of this than in Hyacinthe Rigaud 's frequently-reproduced Portrait of Louis XIV of , in which a year-old Louis appears to stand on a set of unnaturally young legs.
Rigaud's portrait exemplified the height of royal portraiture during Louis' reign. Although Rigaud crafted a credible likeness of Louis, the portrait was neither meant as an exercise in realism nor to explore Louis' personal character.
Certainly, Rigaud was concerned with detail and depicted the king's costume with great precision, down to his shoe buckle.
However, Rigaud's intention was to glorify the monarchy. Rigaud's original, now housed in the Louvre , was originally meant as a gift to Louis' grandson, Philip V of Spain.
However, Louis was so pleased with the work that he kept the original and commissioned a copy to be sent to his grandson.
That became the first of many copies, both in full and half-length formats, to be made by Rigaud, often with the help of his assistants.
The portrait also became a model for French royal and imperial portraiture down to the time of Charles X over a century later.
In his work, Rigaud proclaims Louis' exalted royal status through his elegant stance and haughty expression, the royal regalia and throne, rich ceremonial fleur-de-lys robes, as well as the upright column in the background, which, together with the draperies, serves to frame this image of majesty.
In addition to portraits, Louis commissioned at least 20 statues of himself in the s, to stand in Paris and provincial towns as physical manifestations of his rule.
He also commissioned "war artists" to follow him on campaigns to document his military triumphs. To remind the people of these triumphs, Louis erected permanent triumphal arches in Paris and the provinces for the first time since the decline of the Roman Empire.
Louis' reign marked the birth and infancy of the art of medallions. Sixteenth-century rulers had often issued medals in small numbers to commemorate the major events of their reigns.
Louis, however, struck more than to celebrate the story of the king in bronze, that were enshrined in thousands of households throughout France.
He also used tapestries as a medium of exalting the monarchy. Tapestries could be allegorical, depicting the elements or seasons, or realist, portraying royal residences or historical events.
They were among the most significant means to spread royal propaganda prior to the construction of the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles.
Louis loved ballet and frequently danced in court ballets during the early half of his reign. In general, Louis was an eager dancer who performed 80 roles in 40 major ballets.
This approaches the career of a professional ballet dancer. His choices were strategic and varied. He sometimes danced leading roles which were suitably royal or godlike such as Neptune, Apollo, or the Sun.
It is considered that, at all times, he provided his roles with sufficient majesty and drew the limelight with his flair for dancing.
The sheer number of performances he gave as well as the diversity of roles he played may serve to indicate a deeper understanding and interest in the art form.
Ballet dancing was actually used by Louis as a political tool to hold power over his state. Pierre Beauchamp , his private dance instructor, was ordered by Louis to come up with a notation system to record ballet performances, which he did with great success.
His work was adopted and published by Feuillet in This major development in ballet played an important role in promoting French culture and ballet throughout Europe during Louis' time.
Louis greatly emphasized etiquettes in ballet dancing, evidently seen in "La belle danse" the French noble style.
More challenging skills were required to perform this dance with movements very much resembling court behaviors, as a way to remind the nobles of the king's absolute power and their own status.
All the details and rules were compressed in five positions of the bodies codified by Beauchamp. Besides the official depiction and image of Louis, his subjects also followed a non-official discourse consisting mainly of clandestine publications, popular songs, and rumors that provided an alternative interpretation of Louis and his government.
They often focused on the miseries arising from poor government, but also carried the hope for a better future when Louis escaped the malignant influence of his ministers and mistresses, and took the government into his own hands.
On the other hand, petitions addressed either directly to Louis or to his ministers exploited the traditional imagery and language of monarchy.
These varying interpretations of Louis abounded in self-contradictions that reflected the people's amalgamation of their everyday experiences with the idea of monarchy.
Despite the image of a healthy and virile king that Louis sought to project, evidence exists to suggest that his health was not very good.
He had many ailments: for example, symptoms of diabetes , as confirmed in reports of suppurating periostitis in , dental abscesses in , along with recurring boils , fainting spells, gout , dizziness , hot flushes, and headaches.
On 18 November , Louis underwent a painful operation for an anal fistula that was performed by the surgeon Charles Felix de Tassy, who prepared a specially shaped curved scalpel for the occasion.
The wound took more than two months to heal. Louis died of gangrene at Versailles on 1 September , four days before his 77th birthday, after 72 years on the throne.
Enduring much pain in his last days, he finally "yielded up his soul without any effort, like a candle going out", while reciting the psalm Domine, ad adjuvandum me festina O Lord, make haste to help me.
It remained there undisturbed for about 80 years, until revolutionaries exhumed and destroyed all of the remains found in the Basilica.
Louis outlived most of his immediate legitimate family. His last surviving in-wedlock son, the Dauphin, died in Barely a year later, the Duke of Burgundy, the eldest of the Dauphin's three sons and then heir to Louis, followed his father.
Burgundy's elder son, Louis, Duke of Brittany , joined them a few weeks later. Thus, on his deathbed, Louis' heir was his five-year-old great-grandson, Louis, Duke of Anjou , Burgundy's younger son.
He stripped Maine and his brother, Louis-Alexandre, Count of Toulouse , of the rank of Prince of the Blood , which Louis had granted them, and significantly reduced Maine's power and privileges.
Louis XIV's only surviving legitimate grandson, Philip V, was not included in the line of succession due to having renounced the French throne after the war of the Spanish succession, which lasted for 13 years after the death of Charles II of Spain in According to Philippe de Dangeau 's Journal , Louis on his deathbed advised his heir with these words:.
Do not follow the bad example which I have set you; I have often undertaken war too lightly and have sustained it for vanity. Do not imitate me, but be a peaceful prince, and may you apply yourself principally to the alleviation of the burdens of your subjects.
Some historians point out that it was a customary demonstration of piety in those days to exaggerate one's sins. Thus they do not place much emphasis on Louis' deathbed declarations in assessing his accomplishments.
Rather, they focus on military and diplomatic successes, such as how he placed a French prince on the Spanish throne.
This, they contend, ended the threat of an aggressive Spain that historically interfered in domestic French politics.
These historians also emphasise the effect of Louis' wars in expanding France's boundaries and creating more defensible frontiers that preserved France from invasion until the Revolution.
Arguably, Louis also applied himself indirectly to "the alleviation of the burdens of [his] subjects. Moreover, the significant reduction in civil wars and aristocratic rebellions during his reign are seen by these historians as the result of Louis' consolidation of royal authority over feudal elites.
They regard the political and military victories as well as numerous cultural achievements as the means by which Louis helped raise France to a preeminent position in Europe.
Europeans generally began to emulate French manners, values, goods, and deportment. French became the universal language of the European elite.Although Louis' recovery earned him the epithet "well-beloved" from a public relieved by his continue reading, the events at Metz diminished his standing. Although a part of Alsace, Strasbourg was not part of Habsburg-ruled Alsace louis xiv was thus not ceded to France in the Peace of Westphalia. Founder of the Maine Line. There were also two lesser conflicts: the War of Devolution visit web page the War of the Reunions. Click the following article seemed to herald an era of Catholic monarchs in England. France had constructed Fort Duquesne to defend their frontier against the Americans; Britain sent the young George Washington with a small force to construct his own fortification, Fort Necessitynearby. In he moved the royal Court to the Palace of Versailles, the defining symbol of his power and influence in Europe. Due to Choiseul's sole focus on a war with Britain, he had completely ignored the rest of Europe. The first priority of Maupeou was to bring the unruly Parlements under control, and to continue with his program for the modernization of the state.